We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for
the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of
liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.
Legislative powers; in whom vested
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of
the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of
House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and direct taxes,
how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be filled. Power of
choosing officers, and of impeachment.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every
second year by the people of the several States, and the elector in each
State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most
numerous branch of the State Legislature.
No person shall be a
Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and
been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when
elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives [and direct taxes] (Altered by 16th Amendment) shall
be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this
Union, according to their respective numbers, [which shall be determined by
adding the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service
for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all
other persons.](Altered by 14th Amendment) The actual enumeration shall
be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the
United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner
as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed
one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one
Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New
Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode
Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New
Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive
Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Senators, how and by whom chosen. How classified.
State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case,
etc. Qualifications of a Senator. President of the Senate, his
right to vote. President pro tem., and other officers of the
Senate, how chosen. Power to try impeachments. When President is
tried, Chief Justice to preside. Sentence.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from
each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,] (Altered by 17th
Amendment) for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they
shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the
Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second
year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the
third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be
chosen every second year; [and if vacancies happen by resignation, or
otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.] (Altered by 17th
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the
age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.
The Vice-President of the United States shall be
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he
shall exercise the office of the President of the United States.
Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of
the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person
shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members
Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed.
One session in each year.
The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and
Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature
thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
The Congress shall
assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be [on the
first Monday in December,] Altered by 20th
Amendment) unless they by law
appoint a different day.
Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules, Power to punish or expel.
Journal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.
Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and
under such penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings,
punish its members for disorderly
behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish
the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgement require secrecy;
and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall,
at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place
than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Compensation, Privileges, Disqualification in certain
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their
services to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the
United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach
of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the
session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the
same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be
questioned in any other place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during
the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under
the authority of the United States, which shall have increased during such
time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a
member of either House during his continuance in office.
House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill may
be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc.
Bill, not returned in ten days to become a law. Provisions as to
orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other
Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives
and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president
of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and
proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two thirds of that
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the
objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered,
and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in
all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and
nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be
entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be
returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall
have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he
had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return,
in which case it shall not be a law.
Every order, resolution, or vote
to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be
necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the
president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall
be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by
two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the
rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Powers of Congress The Congress shall have the power
To lay and collect taxes, duties,
imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence
and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and
excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow money
on the credit of the United States;
To regulate commerce with foreign
nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;
establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject
of bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin money, regulate
the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities
and current coin of the United States;
To establish post-offices and
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by
securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to
their respective writings and discoveries;
To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court;
To define and punish piracies and felonies
committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning
captures on land and water;
To raise and support armies, but no
appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two
To provide and maintain a navy;
To make rules for the
government and regulation of the land and naval forces:;
To provide for
calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress
insurrections and repel invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming
and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be
employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states
respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district
(not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states,
and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by
the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful
buildings; -- And,
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper
for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers
vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in
any department or officer thereof.
Provision as to migration or importation of certain
persons. Habeas Corpus, Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how
apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money,
how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not
top receive presents, etc.
The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now
existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the
Congress prior to the year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such
importations, not exceeding 10 dollars for each person.
[No capitation, or
other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or
enumeration herein before directed to be taken.] (Altered by 16th
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to
the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or
from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States:
And no person holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall,
without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument,
office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign
States prohibited from the exercise of certain
No state shall, without the
consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports,
except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws;
and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports
or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States;
and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the
No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage
in a war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not
admit of delay.
President: his term of office. Electors of President;
number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day.
Qualification of President. On whom his duties devolve in case of his
removal, death, etc. President's compensation. His oath of
The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States
of America. He shall hold office during the term of four years, and together
with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows
[Each State] (
Altered by 23rd Amendment) shall appoint, in such manner
as the Legislature may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole
number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office
of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector
[The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same
State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted
for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the
seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and
House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall
then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors
appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately
choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a
majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall
be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds
of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having
the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate
shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.] (Altered by 12th
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the
electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be
the same throughout the United States.
No person except a natural born
citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of
this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither
shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to
the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the
In case of the removal of the President from office, or
of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties
of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the
Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or
inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer
shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until
the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. (Altered by
25th 6. Amendment)
The President shall, at stated times, receive for
his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor
diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall
not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States,
or any of them.
Before he enter on the execution of his office, he
shall take the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office
of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability,
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
President to be Commander-in-Chief. He may require
opinions of cabinet officers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-making
power. Nomination of certain officers. When President may fill
The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into
the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall
have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against against the
United States, except in cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by
and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided
two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other
officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise
provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by
law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in
the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
The President shall have the power to fill up all vacancies that may may
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall
expire at the end of their next session.
President shall communicate to Congress. He may convene
and adjourn Congress, in case of disagreement, etc. Shall
receive ambassadors, execute laws, and commission officers.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state
of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall
judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene
both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them,
with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as
he shall think proper; he may receive ambassadors, and other public
ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall
commission all the officers of the United States.
All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.
The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of,
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
Judicial power; to what cases it extends. Original
jurisdiction of Supreme Court Appellate. Trial by Jury, etc.
The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising
under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made,
or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be
a party; [to controversies between two or more states, between a state and
citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between
citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states,
and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens
or subjects.] (Altered by 11th Amendment)
In all cases affecting
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state
shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In
all the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate
jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such
regulations as the Congress shall make.
Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war
against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no
attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except
during the life of the person attainted.
Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc. of
every other State.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts,
records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may
by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and
proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Privileges of citizens of each State. Fugitives from
Justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service having
escaped, to be delivered up.
The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and
immunities of citizens in the several states. (See the 14th Amendment)
A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who
shall flee justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the
executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into
another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be
discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim
of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.(Altered by 13th Amendment)
Admission of new States. Power of Congress over
territory and other property.
New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new
state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state,
nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, without the
consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all
needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so
construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
Republican form of government guaranteed. Each State
to be protected.
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion;
and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the
legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary,
shall propose amendments to this constitution, or on the application of the
legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention
for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all
intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be
proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made
prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth
clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state,
without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption
of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this
constitution, as under the confederation.
This constitution, and the
laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all
treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United
States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state
shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state
to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives
before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all
executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the
several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this
constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification
to any office or public trust under the United States.
The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying
Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present the
seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United States of
America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have herunto subscribed our names.